【進化版】GMAT AWA・GRE AWで満点を目指す史上最強テンプレート

gre gmat writing
ねこ君
GMATのAWAはいっつも5点、おれ、すごくない?

にゃんこ先生
・・・・。

にゃんこ先生
GMATの作文って、そんなに難しくない。TOEFLと違って、問題文から文章をコピペしても、減点されることもないし。

にゃんこ先生
間違った論点を見つけて、反論のポイントをいくつか想像できれば、5点は全然夢じゃない。

にゃんこ先生
でも、GREのAnalytical Writingは難しいから、3,4点の受験生がほとんど。特に文系の大学院に進学しようとする受験生にとって、「この人が将来英語で修士論文・博士論文を書けるかどうか」の判断材料になるから、作文の点数はすごく重要。

にゃんこ先生
今回は、ちょっと難しい言葉が増えてしまうけど、前回ねこ君が紹介した記事に加えて、よりGREのAnalytical Writing、GMATのAWAで高得点を取るためのテンプレートと対策を紹介したい。

Argument作文(GMAT・GRE共通)

GMAT AWAとGRE Argument Writingの問題形式は同じで、基本的には文章の論点と推論に論理的に反論することが仕事。

まず、ライティング全体の構成を整えるためのテンプレートを覚えよう。その後、文章の論点に反対するためのテンプレートを、ツッコミポイントごとに使いこなせるようにする。ツッコミポイントは次項で確認しよう。

 

全体構成のテンプレート

文章の結論を示す:

In this argument, the author reaches the conclusion that…

その結論を支える論点/証拠を見つける:

The basis for this conclusion is that…. An additional reason given in support of this conclusion is that… 或いは、The author cites…as an example in support of this conclusion.

自分の立場/この文章への評価を示す:

At first glance, the author’s argument appears to be somewhat convincing, but further reflection reveals that it omits some important concerns that should be addressed to substantiate the argument.

ツッコミ①:In the first place,

ツッコミ②:In the second place,

ツッコミ③:In the third place,

まとめ、自分の立場/この文章への評価を再度主張:

In summary, the author fails to provide adequate justification for(結論)…. As it stands, the reasoning does not constitute a logical argument in favor of the recommendation. To strengthen the argument, the author would have to provide evidence to prove that…. To better assess the argument, we need additional detailed information about…so that we can establish the conclusion whether….

 

ツッコミポイント7つとそれぞれのテンプレート

大体のAWAのリーディング文章の中に、下記の誤った推論のいずれかが含まれている。具体例はこの記事を参照しよう。

  1. 因果関係がない False causality
  2. サンプル数不足 Insufficient-sample
  3. 類比の間違い Based on a false analogy
  4. 時間の変遷を無視 All things are equal
  5. AかBという二極化 Either-Or choice
  6. サーベイの信ぴょう性がない Survey is doubtful
  7. 根拠のない仮説 Gratuitous assumption

これらのロジックの間違いを見つけたら、下記のテンプレートを活用して自分の反論を組み立てよう。

 

① 因果関係がない False causality

・ The author commits a fallacy of causal oversimplification. The line of the reasoning is that because A occurred before B, the former event is responsible for the latter. 或いは、The author uses the positive correlation between A and B to establish causality. However, the fact that A coincides with B does not necessarily prove that A caused B.

・ But this is fallacious reasoning unless other possible causal explanations have been considered and ruled out. For example, perhaps C is the cause of these events or perhaps B is caused by D.

 

② サンプル数不足 Insufficient-sample

The evidence the author provides is insufficient to support the conclusion drawn from it. One example is logically unsounded to establish a general conclusion (The statistics from only a few recent years are not necessarily a good indicator of future trends), unless it can be shown that A1 is representative of all A. It is possible that…. In fact, in face of such limited evidence, the conclusion that B is completely unwarranted.

 

③ 類比の間違い Based on a false analogy

The argument rests on the assumption that A is analogous to B in all respects. This assumption is weak, since although there are points of comparison between A and B, there are many dissimilarities as well. For example, A…, however, B…. Thus, it is likely much more difficult for B to ….

 

④ 時間の変遷を無視 All things are equal

The author commits the fallacy of “all things are equal”. The fact that happened two years ago is not a sound evidence to draw a conclusion that…. The author assumes without justification that the background conditions have remained the same at different times or at different locations. However, it is not clear in this argument whether the current conditions at AA are the same as they used to be two years ago. Thus it is impossible to conclude that….

 

⑤ AかBという二極化 Either-Or choice

The author assumes that AA and BB are mutually exclusive alternatives and there is no room for a middle ground. However, the author provides no reason for imposing an either-or choice. Common sense tells us that adjusting both AA and BB might produce better results.

 

⑥ サーベイの信ぴょう性がない Survey is doubtful

The poll cited by the author is too vague to be informative. The claim does not indicate who conducted the poll, who responded, or when, where and how the poll was conducted. 或いは、Lacking information about the number of people surveyed and the number of respondents, it is impossible to access the validity of the results. For example, if 200 persons were surveyed but only 2 responded, the conclusion that…would be highly suspect.

Because the argument offers no evidence that would rule out this kind of interpretations, until these questions are answered, the results of the survey are worthless as evidence for the conclusion.

 

⑦ 根拠のない仮説 Gratuitous assumption

The author falsely depends on gratuitous assumption that…. However, no evidence is stated in the argument to support this assumption. In fact, this is not necessarily the case. For example, it is more likely that…. Therefore, this argument is unwarranted without ruling out such possibility

 

にゃんこ先生
反論のポイントごとにテンプレートを使いこなすことで、洗練された単語や表現を増やすことができる。

にゃんこ先生
覚える量は多くなるけど、点数を上げるためには有効な手段。

にゃんこ先生
一方で、そもそも反論が思い浮かばないのであれば、前の記事をよく読んで、演習問題ごとに反論ポイントを考える練習をしておこう。

 

 

Issue作文(GREのみ)

gre issue

GREのIssue作文は、基本的には一つの提案/意見を提示し、賛成か反対かを示す問題。テーマは社会、経済、芸術など幅広い。その幅の広さは、TOEFLのIndependent作文の学術バージョンを想像してみよう。また、高得点獲得のためには、TOEFLより洗練された言葉使いと、知見のある文章が求められている。

ここで共有できるのは作文全体構成のテンプレートだけ。内容については、普段の積み重ねが大事になってくる。

New York Timesなどのコラム/評論を毎日読むこと、作文練習の時Grammarly(無料の文法添削ツール)を活用して文法ミスを最小限に抑えること等の練習が必要になる。

 

テンプレート

The issue of whether…is a complex and controversial one. Different people hold different views due to their respective angles. On the one hand, as is well-known and has often been advocated, …; on the other hand, others probably insist that…. We do not have to look very far to see the valid standpoint of this matter. In the following analysis, I would like to reason and provide evidence favoring the former one and refuting the latter one. (The complex nature of the above issue requires us to consider it on a case-by-case basis. In my point of view, whether one has advantages over the other depends on the specific circumstances.)

In the first place, the important reason that can be presented to develop my position is that…. A good example may be found in the case that…. Under this circumstance/therefore, it is obvious that….

In addition, there is another reason for me to choose the former statement/consider the latter statement to be wrong. The reason is not far to seek:…. To illustrate, a case in point in this respect is that….

Admittedly, there is no denying that…in some conditions. As we know, …. However, this alone does not constitute a sufficient support to…. (When…of X and Y are carefully compared, the most striking conclusion is obvious. To sum up, while…may be true in exceptional cases, I agree that….)

Consequently, I advocate that…, because: (1) …; (2) …. Due to the above-mentioned reasons, which sometimes intertwine to form an organic whole and thus become more persuasive, we may safely arrive at the conclusion I support.

 

にゃんこ先生
テンプレートがあるとは言え、丸ごと暗記して使ったら、盗作って判定される可能性はあるから、文章の構成と言葉遣いをまねして自分のオリジナルテンプレートを作ったほうが高得点を狙いやすい。

にゃんこ先生
大幅に変えるというより、覚えづらい単語や表現をちょこちょこ馴染みのある単語に変えるだけでも大丈夫。

 

問題例・サンプルエッセイ

問題例

ちなみに、ライティングの問題はGRE、GMATのホームページで全て公開されている。事前に眺めておくことで本番中の負担が減るのではないだろうか?GREはこちら、GMATはこちらからダウンロードしよう。

サンプルエッセイ

GREのライティングの模範解答を共有する。ここで紹介したテンプレートと同じ言葉を使っているわけではないが、構成やロジックの組み立て方は同じのため、参考になるだろう。掲示板からダウンロードしよう。

GMATのAWAのサンプルエッセイに関しても掲示板で共有した。理由付けやロジックの参考になるだろう。

 

 

にゃんこ先生
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にゃんこ先生
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