GMAT AWAとGRE Argument Writingの問題形式は同じで、基本的には文章の論点と推論に論理的に反論することが仕事。
In this argument, the author reaches the conclusion that…
The basis for this conclusion is that…. An additional reason given in support of this conclusion is that… 或いは、The author cites…as an example in support of this conclusion.
At first glance, the author’s argument appears to be somewhat convincing, but further reflection reveals that it omits some important concerns that should be addressed to substantiate the argument.
ツッコミ①：In the first place,
ツッコミ②：In the second place,
ツッコミ③：In the third place,
In summary, the author fails to provide adequate justification for（結論）…. As it stands, the reasoning does not constitute a logical argument in favor of the recommendation. To strengthen the argument, the author would have to provide evidence to prove that…. To better assess the argument, we need additional detailed information about…so that we can establish the conclusion whether….
- 因果関係がない False causality
- サンプル数不足 Insufficient-sample
- 類比の間違い Based on a false analogy
- 時間の変遷を無視 All things are equal
- AかBという二極化 Either-Or choice
- サーベイの信ぴょう性がない Survey is doubtful
- 根拠のない仮説 Gratuitous assumption
① 因果関係がない False causality
・ The author commits a fallacy of causal oversimplification. The line of the reasoning is that because A occurred before B, the former event is responsible for the latter. 或いは、The author uses the positive correlation between A and B to establish causality. However, the fact that A coincides with B does not necessarily prove that A caused B.
・ But this is fallacious reasoning unless other possible causal explanations have been considered and ruled out. For example, perhaps C is the cause of these events or perhaps B is caused by D.
② サンプル数不足 Insufficient-sample
The evidence the author provides is insufficient to support the conclusion drawn from it. One example is logically unsounded to establish a general conclusion (The statistics from only a few recent years are not necessarily a good indicator of future trends), unless it can be shown that A1 is representative of all A. It is possible that…. In fact, in face of such limited evidence, the conclusion that B is completely unwarranted.
③ 類比の間違い Based on a false analogy
The argument rests on the assumption that A is analogous to B in all respects. This assumption is weak, since although there are points of comparison between A and B, there are many dissimilarities as well. For example, A…, however, B…. Thus, it is likely much more difficult for B to ….
④ 時間の変遷を無視 All things are equal
The author commits the fallacy of “all things are equal”. The fact that happened two years ago is not a sound evidence to draw a conclusion that…. The author assumes without justification that the background conditions have remained the same at different times or at different locations. However, it is not clear in this argument whether the current conditions at AA are the same as they used to be two years ago. Thus it is impossible to conclude that….
⑤ AかBという二極化 Either-Or choice
The author assumes that AA and BB are mutually exclusive alternatives and there is no room for a middle ground. However, the author provides no reason for imposing an either-or choice. Common sense tells us that adjusting both AA and BB might produce better results.
⑥ サーベイの信ぴょう性がない Survey is doubtful
The poll cited by the author is too vague to be informative. The claim does not indicate who conducted the poll, who responded, or when, where and how the poll was conducted. 或いは、Lacking information about the number of people surveyed and the number of respondents, it is impossible to access the validity of the results. For example, if 200 persons were surveyed but only 2 responded, the conclusion that…would be highly suspect.
Because the argument offers no evidence that would rule out this kind of interpretations, until these questions are answered, the results of the survey are worthless as evidence for the conclusion.
⑦ 根拠のない仮説 Gratuitous assumption
The author falsely depends on gratuitous assumption that…. However, no evidence is stated in the argument to support this assumption. In fact, this is not necessarily the case. For example, it is more likely that…. Therefore, this argument is unwarranted without ruling out such possibility
New York Timesなどのコラム/評論を毎日読むこと、作文練習の時Grammarly（無料の文法添削ツール）を活用して文法ミスを最小限に抑えること等の練習が必要になる。
The issue of whether…is a complex and controversial one. Different people hold different views due to their respective angles. On the one hand, as is well-known and has often been advocated, …; on the other hand, others probably insist that…. We do not have to look very far to see the valid standpoint of this matter. In the following analysis, I would like to reason and provide evidence favoring the former one and refuting the latter one. (The complex nature of the above issue requires us to consider it on a case-by-case basis. In my point of view, whether one has advantages over the other depends on the specific circumstances.)
In the first place, the important reason that can be presented to develop my position is that…. A good example may be found in the case that…. Under this circumstance/therefore, it is obvious that….
In addition, there is another reason for me to choose the former statement/consider the latter statement to be wrong. The reason is not far to seek:…. To illustrate, a case in point in this respect is that….
Admittedly, there is no denying that…in some conditions. As we know, …. However, this alone does not constitute a sufficient support to…. (When…of X and Y are carefully compared, the most striking conclusion is obvious. To sum up, while…may be true in exceptional cases, I agree that….)
Consequently, I advocate that…, because: (1) …; (2) …. Due to the above-mentioned reasons, which sometimes intertwine to form an organic whole and thus become more persuasive, we may safely arrive at the conclusion I support.